pgds
  Dr. Pablo Gonzalez-de-santos is a Research Professor at the Centre for Automation and Robotics of the Spanish National Research Council where he has been involved actively in the design and development of industrial robots as well as in special robotic systems. His work during last fifteen years has been focused on walking machines. He worked on the AMBLER project as a visiting scientist at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. Since then, he has been leading the development of several walking robots such as the RIMHO robot designed for intervention on hazardous environments, the ROWER walking machine developed for welding tasks in ship erection processes and the SILO4 walking robot intended for educational and basic research purposes. He has also participated in the development of other legged robot such as the REST climbing robot and the Tracminer and has studied how to apply walking machines to the field of humanitarian de-mining (SILO6). He is currently developing Intelligent Assists Devices (RoboTab-2000and DIAM) and leading a EC project to develop a Robot Fleet for Highly Efficient Agricultural and Forestry Management (RHEA).
   
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Multi-robot systems  
Walking robots  
 
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    REPRESENTATIVE PUBLICATIONS
    2013
   

L. Emmi, L. Paredes-Madrid, A. Ribeiro, G. Pajares, Pablo Gonzalez-de-Santos,
"Fleets of robots for precision agriculture: A simulation environment"
Industrial Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 40 Iss: 1, pp.41 – 58, 2013
DOI: 10.1108/01439911311294246

L. Paredes-Madrid and P. Gonzalez de Santos
"Dataglove-based interface for impedance control of manipulators in cooperative human-robot environments"
Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 24, 2013
DOI:10.1088/0957-0233/24/2/025005

E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos
“Modular and versatile platform for benchmarking of modern actuators for robots”
Smart Structures and Systems, Vol. 11, N. 2, 2013

[Home]

    2012
   

D. Sanz-Merodio, E. Garcia, and P. Gonzalez-de-Santos
“Analyzing energy-efficient configurations in hexapod robots for demining applications”
Industrial Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 39 Issue: 4, 2012
DOI: 10.1108/01439911211227926

R. Fernández, H. Montes-Franceschi, C. Salinas, P. Gonzalez-de-Santos, M. Armada
“Design of a training tool for improving the use of hand-held detectors in humanitarian demining”
Industrial Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 39 Issue: 5, pp.450 - 463, 2012
DOI: 10.1108/01439911211249742

[Home]

    2011
   

E. Garcia, J.C. Arevalo, G. Muñoz and P. Gonzalez-de-Santos
"Combining series-elastic actuation and magneto-rheological damping for the control of agile locomotion"
Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 59, pp: 827–839, 2011
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2011.06.006

L. Paredes-Madrid, L. Emmi, E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez-de-Santos
"Detailed Study of Amplitude Nonlinearity in Piezoresistive Force Sensors"
Sensors, Vol. 1, pp: 8836–8854, 2011
DOI: 10.3390/s110908836

C. Salinas, H. Montes, G. Fernandez, P. Gonzalez de Santos, and M. Armada
"Catadioptric panoramic stereovision for humanoid robots"
Robotica (Cambridge University Press), Vol. , pp: 1–13, 2011
DOI: 10.1017/S0263574711001068

E. Garcia, J. C. Arevalo, G. Muñoz and P. Gonzalez-de-Santos
"On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs"
Sensors, Vol. 11, pp: 11305-1133, 2011
DOI: 10.3390/s111211305

[Home]
    2010
   

P. Gonzalez de Santos, E. Garcia, J. F. Sarria, R. Ponticelli and J. Reviejo,
“A new manipulator structure for power-assist devices”,
Industrial Robot, Vol 37, N. 5, 2010.
DOI: 10.1108/01439911011063272

L. Paredes-Madrid, P. Torruella, P. Solaeche, I. Galiana and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Accurate modeling of low-cost piezoresistive force sensors for haptic interfaces”,  
Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(ICRA-2010), pp. 1828-1833, Anchorage, Alaska, 2010.

J. A. Cobano, J. Estremera and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Accurate tracking of legged robots on natural terrain”,
Autonomous Robots, Vol. 28, N. 2 pp: 231-244, 2010.
DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10514-009-9165-4

R. Ponticelli and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Obtaining terrain maps and obstacle contours for terrain recognition tasks”,
Mechatronics
, Vol. 20, pp: 236-250,  2010.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mechatronics.2009.11.008

J. Estremera, J. A. Cobano and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Continuous free-crab gaits for hexapod robots on a natural terrain with forbidden zones: An application to Humanitarian Demining”,
Robotics and Autonomous Systems”, Vol, 58, pp: 700-711, 2010.
DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2009.11.004


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    2009
   

P. Gonzalez de Santos, E. Garcia, R. Ponticelli and M. Armada,
“Minimizing Energy Consumption in Hexapod Robots”,
Advanced Robotics, Vol. 23, pp.  681–704, 2009.
DOI: 10.1163/156855309X431677

[Home]

    2008
   

J. A. Cobano, R. Ponticelli and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Mobile robotic system for detection and location of antipersonnel land-mines: Field tests”,
Industrial Robot
, Vol. 35, N. 6, pp: 520-527, 2008.

R. Ponticelli, P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Full perimeter obstacle contact sensor based on flex sensors”,
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
, Vol. 147, pp. 441-448, 2008,
DOI::10.1016/j.sna.2008.05.029

J. A. Cobano, J. Estremera and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Location of legged robots in outdoor environments”,
Robotics and Autonomous Systems
, Vol. 56, pp: 751-761, 2008,
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2007.12.003

R. Ponticelli, E. Garcia, P. Gonzalez de Santos y M. Armada,
“A scanning robotic system for humanitarian de-mining activities”,
Industrial Robot Vol.: 35 N.: 2, pp: 133 – 142,  2008,
DOI: 10.1108/01439910810854629.

E. Garcia, P. Gonzalez de Santos and F. Matia,
“Dealing with internal and external perturbatin on walking robots”,
Autonomous Robots, 
Vol. 24, pp. 213-227, 2008.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, J. Estremera, E. Garcia and M. Armada,
“Power assist devices for installing plaster panels in construction”,
Automation in Construction
, Vol. 17, pp. 459-466, 2008.


[Home]

    2007
   

P. Gonzalez de Santos, E. Garcia y J. Estremera,
"Improving walking-robot performances by optimizing leg distribution",
Autonomous Robots, Vol. 23, N. 4, pp. 247-258, 2007.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, J. A. Cobano, E. Garcia, J. Estremera, M.A. Armada,
"A six-legged robot-based system for humanitarian demining missions",
Mechatronics, Vol. 17, pp. 417-430, 2007.

E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Hybrid deliberative/reactive control of a scanning system for landmine detection",
Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 55, pp. 490-497, 2007.

E. Garcia, M. A. Jimenez, P. Gonzalez de Santos and M. Armada,
"The Evolution of Robotics Research: From Industrial Robotics to Field and Service Robotics,
IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 90-103, March 2007.

[Home]

    2006
Quadrupedal locomotion

Hardcover - 267 pages, 1st edition (2006)
Language: English

 

E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“On the improvement of walking performance in natural environments by a compliant adaptive gait”,
IEEE Transactions on Robotics,
Vol. 22, No. 6, pp: 1240-1253, December 2006.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, E. Garcia and J. Estremera,
QUADRUPEDAL LOCOMOTION: An Introduction to the Control of Four-Legged Robots,
Springer, London, 2006,
ISBN-13: 978-1-84628-306-2
.

T. A. Guardabrazo, M. A. Jiménez and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Analysing and solving body misplacement problems in walking robots with round rigid feet", 
Robotics and Autonomous Systems
, Vol. 54, pp. 256-264, March, 2006
.

[Home]

    2005
   

J. Estremera and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Generating continuous free crab gaits for quadruped robots on irregular terrain",
IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp: 1067-1076, 2005.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, E. Garcia, J. Estremera and M. Armada,
"DYLEMA: Using Walking Robots for Landmine Detection and Location",
International Journal of Systems Science
, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 545-558, 2005.

J. Estremera, P. Gonzalez de Santos and L. A. Lopez-Orozco,
"Neural virtual sensor for terrain adaptation of walking machines",
Journal of Robotic Systems
, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp: 229-311, 2005.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, J. Estremera and E. Garcia,
"Optimizing Leg Distribution Around the Body in Walking Robots",
Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Barcelona, Spain, April 2005, pp: 3218-3223, 2005.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, J. Estremera, E. Garcia and M. Armada,
"Including Joint Torques and Power Consumption in the Stability Margin of Walking Robots",
Autonomous Robots, Vol. 18, pp: 43-57, January 2005.

E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"An improved energy stability margin for walking machines subject to dynamic effect",
Robotica
, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp: 13-20, 2005.


[Home]

    2004
   

E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
“Mobile Robot Navigation with Complete Coverage of Unstructured Environments”,
Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp: 195 – 204, 2004.

T. A. Guardabrazo and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Building an energetic model to evaluate and optimize power consumption in walking robots",
Industrial Robot, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 201-208, 2004.


[Home]

    2003
   

P. Gonzalez de Santos, J. A. Galvez, J. Estremera and E. Garcia,
"SILO4 - A true walking robot for the comparative study of walking machine techniques",
IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine
, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 23-32. December 2003.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, J. Estremera, M.A. Jimenez, E. García and M. Armada,
"Manipulators help out with plaster panels in construction",
Industrial Robot, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp: 508-514, 2003.

E. Garcia, J. A. Galvez and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"On finding the relevant dynamics for model based controlling walking robots",
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems
, Vol. 37, No.4, pp. 375-398, August 2003.

M. Armada, P. Gonzalez de Santos, M.A. Jimenez and M. Prieto,
"Application of CLAWAR machines", 
The International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol. 22 , No. 3-4, pp. 251-264. March-April, 2003.

J. A. Galvez, J. Estremera and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"A new legged-robot configuration for research in force distribution",
Mechatronic, Vol. 13, pp. 907-932, 2003.

[Home]

    2002
   

J. Estremera, E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"A Multi-Modal and Collaborative Human-Machine Interface for a Walking Robot,"
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems
, Vol. 35, pp. 397-425, 2002.

E. Garcia, J. Estremera and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"A comparative study of stability margins for walking machines",
Robotica
, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 595-606. November, 2002.

E. Garcia, P. Gonzalez de Santos and C. Canudas de Wit,
"Velocity dependance in the Cyclic Friction Arising with Gears",
The International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol. 21 , No. 9, pp. 761-771. September, 2002.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, M.A. Jiménez and M.A. Armada,
"Improving the motion of walking machines by autonomous kinematic calibration",
Autonomous Robots, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 187-199, March 2002.

J. Estremera and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Free Gaits for Quadruped Robots over Irregular Terrain",
The International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 115-130, February 2002.

[Home]

    2001-1991
   

E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Using soft computing techniques for improving foot trajectories in walking machines",
Journal of Robotic Systems
, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 343-356, July 2001.

J.A. Galvez, P. Gonzalez de Santos and F. Pfeiffer,
"Intrinsic tactile sensing for the optimization of force distribution in a pipe crawling robot",
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 26-35, 2001.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, M.A. Armada and M. A. Jimenez,
"Ship building with ROWER",
IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine
, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 35- 43, 2000.

J. M. Abreu, R. Ceres, L. Calderon, M. A. Jimenez and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Measuring the 3D-position of a walking vehicle using ultrasonic and electromagnetic waves",
Sensors and Actuators
, Vol. 75, pp. 131-138, 1999.

M. A. Jimenez and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Attitude and Position Control for Non-Rigid Walking Machines",
Mechanism and Machine Theory
, Vol. 33, No. 7, pp. 1013-1029, 1998.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, M. A. Jimenez and M.A. Armada,
"Dynamic Effects in Statically Stable Walking Machines",
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 71- 85, 1998.

M. Maza, J. G. de la Fontaine, M. A. Armada , P. Gonzalez de Santos, V. Papantoniou and M. Mas,
"Wheel + Legs: A New Solution for Traction Enhancement without Additive Soil Compaction",
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
, Vol. 4, Nº 4, pp. 26-33, 1997.

M. A. Jimenez and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Terrain adaptive gait for walking machines",
The International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 320-339, 1997.

M. A. Armada and P. González de Santos,
"Climbing, walking and intervention robots",
Industrial Robot
, Vol. 24, Nº 2, pp. 158-163, 1997.

M. A. Armada, M. Maza, J. G. Fontaine, P. Gonzalez de Santos and V. Papantonius,
"Tracminer: Traction-enhancing minig equipment accessory",
Industrial Robot
, Vol. 24, Nº 5, pp. 370-375, 1997.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, M. A. Armada and M. A. Jimenez,
"Walking Machines: Initial Testbeds, first industrial applications and new research",
Computing and Control Engineering Journal
, Vol. 8, Nº 5, pp. 233-237, 1997.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, M. A. Armada and M.A, Jimenez,
"An Industrial Walking Machine for Naval Construction", 
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Albuquerque (NM), pp. 28-33, 1997.

M. A. Jimenez and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Position-based motion control and adaptability of periodic gaits for realistic walking machines",
International Journal of Systems Science
, Vol. 27, Nº 8, pp. 723-730, 1996.

M. A. Jimenez and P. Gonzalez de Santos,
"Attitude and position control methods for realistic legged vehicle",
Robotics and Autonomous Systems
, Vol.18, pp. 345-354, 1996.

P. Gonzalez de Santos and M. A. Jimenez,
"Generation of Discontinuous Gaits for Quadruped Walking Machines",
Journal of Robotic Systems,
Vol. 12, Nº 9, pp. 599-611, 1995.

P. Gonzalez de Santos and M. A. Jimenez,
"Path Tracking with Quadruped Walking Machines Using Discontinuous Gaits",
Computers and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 21, Nº 6, pp. 383-396, 1995.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, P. V. Nagy and W. L. Whittaker,
"Attitude Control Methods for Walking Machines",
1992 ASME Mechanisms Conference
, Scottsdale (Arizona), pp. 89-94, 1992.

P. Gonzalez de Santos, P. V. Nagy and W. L. Whittaker,
"Levelling of the AMBLER Walking Machines: A comparison of methods",
Technical Report (CMU-IR-TR-91-13)
, The Robotics Institute - Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 1-38, 1991.


[Home]

   
  MULTI-ROBOT SYSTEMS (Fleets of robots)
    RHEA - Robot Fleets for Highly Effective Agriculture and Forestry Management
    RHEA fleet  

RHEA is a FP7- NMP project focused on the design, development, and testing of a new generation of automatic and robotic systems for both chemical and physical –mechanical and thermal– effective weed management devoted to both agriculture and forestry, and covering a large variety of European products including agriculture wide row crops (processing tomato, maize, strawberry, sunflower and cotton), close row crops (winter wheat and winter barley) and forestry woody perennials (walnut trees, almond trees, olive groves and multipurpose open woodland).
RHEA aims at diminishing the use of agricultural chemical inputs in a 75%, improving crop quality, health and safety for humans, and reducing production costs by means of sustainable crop management using a fleet of small, heterogeneous robots –ground and aerial– equipped with advanced sensors, enhanced end-effectors and improved decision control algorithms. RHEA can be considered as a cooperative robotic system, falling within an emerging area of research and technology with a large number of applications.
RHEA is a unique opportunity to gather a very large number of multidisciplinary research groups with adequate funds to accomplish an authentic step forward in applying precision agriculture techniques in a massive way.
This consortium joints a number of multidisciplinary, experienced researchers capable of improving individual scientific knowledge, but a large cooperation project is demanded to sum up the individual efforts in a holistic manner. The success of RHEA could bring a new means of applying automatic systems to agriculture and forestry crops with an important impact in improving the economy and environment as well as in maintaining the sustainability of rural areas by launching new technological jobs.
For further details visit www.rhea-project.eu

[Home]

    GMU  
    AR-200 Drone  
       
    WALKING ROBOTS
  This section introduces the machines developed by Dr. Gonzalez de Santos as Head of the Project.
    The RHIMO walking robot
    Rhimo   The RIMHO walking robot is a prototype developed by the former Industrial Automation Institute - CSIC and the CIEMAT with the aim of studying the potential possibilities of walking locomotion in hazardous environments. This robot has been used as a test bed for different subjects involved in walking theory. The RIMHO is a quadruped-walking machine of the insect type. Its four legs are based on a three dimensional Cartesian pantograph mechanism. The longest link in a leg is 500 mm. The body of the RIMHO is 736x710x344 mm. The chassis and links are mainly made of aluminum and the machine weighs about 65 kg. With such geometry the machine can walk with a clearance of 350 mm. The RIMHO walking robot can perform both discontinuous and wave gaits over irregular terrain including slopes and stairs, and has been tested also over natural terrain.
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  ROWER: On board automatic welding system for ship erection
    ROWER  

Naval construction on workshops presents an acceptable degree of automation. However, the work at dry-docks is still performed by hand. The ROWER project tried to improve this activity performing automatic welding during the ship erection process. The overall system consists of a robot manipulator able to use a commercial welding system and a mobile platform able to provide motion into three components. This mobile platform is based on a four-legged walking machine endowed with especial clasping devices at feet. A vision system to detect the welding seams and a remote control unit are also important parts of the ROWER system. The main specifications of the ROWER Mobile Platform walking robot are:
[Home]

  The SILO4 walking robot
   
Silo4
 

The robot SILO4 was developed with the aim of marketing a common test-bed for experiments and discussion in subjects such as artificial intelligence, perception integration, motion generation, etc. This walking robot was thought as a small robot able to exhibit good omnidirectional rather than a fast machine. The SILO4 was configured as an autonomous walker supervised by a remote operator who is in charge of defining the main features of the robot’s motion such as the speed and direction.
SILO4 main features:
- Weigth. 30 kg
- Body dimension: 310 x 310 x 300 mm
- Leg links: 240 mm
- Speed: 1 meter/minute.
Further information about the SILO4 walking robot can be found in the SILO-4 Web Page
[Home]

  The SILO6 walking robot
   
SILO6
 

The SILO6 is a hexapod designed as the mobile platform of the DYLEMA project intended to configure a system for detection and location of antipersonnel land mines. 
For further details of SILO6, please visit the SILO-6 Web Page

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    OTHER WALKING ROBOTS
   

This section presents some other robots in which development Dr. Gonzalez de Santos has been involved.

  TRACMINER
   
  The TRACMINER is a legged wheel developed to provide a robust and low cost device to be mounted as additional accessory  of traction machines. The main goal is to provide a device increasing 30-40% the traction capacity of the given machine in soft or marshy soil working conditions.
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  REST
   
REST
  The REST is a climbing robot intended for welding in ferromagnetic walls. It has six 3DOF-SCARA-type legs. The feet have special grasping devices based on electromagnets. REST has been designed to carry on high payloads both on vertical/inclined walls and on ceilings. The machine weights 220 Kg and is able to carry on up to 100 Kg when climbing vertical surfaces.
[Home]
  REST2
   
REST2
  The REST2 is a small 4-legged climbing robot designed for the same purpose than REST. It weighs 40 kg and can carry a 10-Kg payload at a continuous speed of 1 meter/minute.
[Home]
  ROBOCLIMBER
   
ROBOCLIMBER
 

ROBOCLIMBER has been built as a tele-operated climbing robot for slope consolidation and monitoring. The robot's main task is to perform deep drilling, thus reducing operation costs and working time. This system also avoids the operator presence in hazardous environments. ROBOCLIMBER consists of a climbing platform and an automatic drilling unit. The platform is hanged on a couple of ropes that provide support on irregular steep walls. The control system monitors the drilling process and collect data about ground features, thus allowing to detect unstable slopes. ROBOCLIMBER is a European-research project of the 5th FP (CRAF-1999-70796).
[Home]

   
  HUMAN POWER AMPLIFIERS
    RoboTab-2000A
   
RoboTab2000a
 

Building construction basically consists of installing small elements manually, although the industry is improving its efficiency by using prefabricated blocks that are assembled to make both outer and inner walls.  When assembling external-wall blocks, operators avail themselves of outdoor cranes that have a high payload capacity and ability.  For assembling inner-wall blocks, however, the situation is quite different.  Cranes are unwieldy for indoor use because of the inherent features of the work site, so operators are forced to handle the blocks by themselves (see figure)
The solution devised to automate this process is to maintain the product as is (no panel changes are required) and to develop a manipulator to help the operator accomplish the task in much the same way as he would by himself.

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    RoboTab-2000b
   
RoboTab2000b
  The second version uses 3 active axes moved by the operator using a joystick and three more passive joints moved directly by the operator action. This last configuration can even improve the manipulation of panels depending on the operator skill. 
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  DIAM
   
DIAM
  DIAM is an intelligent Assist Device to help operators in handling up tp 75-Kg loads. For further details, please visit DIAM
[Home]
       
    CONTACT
    Pablo Gonzalez-de-Santos
Centre for Automation and Robotics 
Ctra. Campo Real Km 0,2
28500 Arganda del Rey
Madrid, Spain

e.mail: pablo.gonzalez [at] csic.es
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CSIC


Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas

Spanish National Research Council